Figure 4-3.examples of IC packaging.
use of integrated circuits. Therefore, we focus on the
use of ICs in the computer.
The integrated circuit is a complete electronic
circuit, containing transistors and perhaps diodes,
resistors, capacitors, and other electronic components,
along with their interconnecting electrical conductors.
ICs provide three major advantages: small size, low
cost, and high reliability.
How ICs are packaged is determined by how they
are integrated in a computer system. Packaging
includes but is not limited to the following:
Dual-in-line packages (DIPs); plastic and
Flat-packs; metal and ceramic
Metal cans (transistor-outlines [TOs])
Leadless chip carriers (LCCs); plastic (PLCCs)
and ceramic (CLCCs)
Leaded chip carriers
Small-outline ICs (SOICs)
Pin grid arrays (PGAs)
Single inline memory modules (SIMMs)
Single inline packages (SIPS)
Single inline pin packages (SIPPs)
See figure 4-3 for IC packaging examples.
IC SIZE INTEGRATION
The reason ICs are packaged in various sizes is not
the chip they require, but the number of leads; the more
leads, the larger the package. The number of gates of
each IC determines the integration sizes. The types of
integration are summarized as follows:
l Small-scale integration (SSI)ICs with up to 9
l Medium-scale integration (MSI)ICs with 10
to 100 gates.